18918. Cytology, Urine with Reflex to FISH. Introduction:Introduction: Simple, safe, and inexpensive method that may uncoverSimple, safe, and inexpensive method that may uncover a hidden urothelial cancer.a hidden urothelial cancer. Collection should be approximately 3 hours after first urine or second urine of the day. Test Code. That urine then travels through your ureters to your bladder, where the urine is stored until you can eliminate it at an appropriate time. The Paris system for reporting urinary cytology: The quest to develop a standardized terminology. A healthcare provider called a pathologist looks at the cells from your urine sample under a microscope. Bone and other hard tissues that contain a lot of calcium need special handling. DEPARTMENT: Cytology SPECIMEN REQUIREMENT: >20 mL fresh specimen in a clean , leakproof, hard plastic container with screw top lid and NO fixative added. The addition of molecular tests for genetic abnormalities associated with urothelial carcinoma may significantly increase the sensitivity of urine cytology. Most of the time, the sample is collected as a clean catch urine sample in your doctor’s office or at home. Acta Cytologica. Urine cytology. It is very difficult to interpret changes in a chemistry panel (urea nitrogen and creatinine in particular) in the absence of urine, since the kidney and its ability to produce urine can dramatically affect chemistry results. The test is painless for patients and it is a very cost effective tool for diagnosis and follow up on medical treatments. Do not collect the first urine produced in the morning (first void). Recent studies suggest that the bladder tumor antigen (BTA) test, an agglutination reaction for basement membrane complexes, is superior to voided urine cytology in clinical practice. Urine cytology is a test to look for abnormal cells in your urine. Urine examination with microscope . It was not until Papanicolaou published his article in Science in 1945 that urine cytology was widely used to detect urothelial carcinoma. Link: Cytology Services Urine Cytology Urine cytology is a microscopic examination of cells found in the urine. We also evaluated whether cystoscopy can be omitted from the surveillance protocol by combining the two tests. Completely empty bladder at this time and DISCARD the urine. Urine cytology tests look for cancer cells. What is urine cytology ? 21.5 and 21.6) [ 28 ]. The urine sample will be sent to a lab where a pathologist will evaluate it. This simple and cost effective test can help in diagnosis of urothelial malignancies. 1,2 Urine cytology is also currently a mainstay in the surveillance of patients who have a history of urinary tract malignancy. Urine cytology is an essential modality for the detection of urothelial neoplasia. Cytology Test—When to Get One. A cystoscopy and a computerized tomography (CT) scan may be recommended next. Most typical blood tests are focused on the functioning of organs like the thyroid, kidneys, liver or pancreas. In some cases, a urine sample is collected using a thin, hollow tube (catheter) that's inserted into your urethra and moved up to your bladder. The answer to whether urine cytology possess the optimal combination of sensitivity and specificity to retain consideration as … If a cancerous condition is detected, other tests and procedures are usually recommended to diagnose cancers, including bladder cancer, ureteral cancer and cancer of the urethra. What if cancer cells found in urine cytology? Cells held overnight in your bladder, which are eliminated during your first morning urination, might be degraded, making them difficult to analyze in the laboratory. Download Collection of a urine sample for cytology GHPI0386_04_20.pdf PDF - … Cytology is used to assess morphologic changes in intact cells. This site complies with the HONcode standard for trustworthy health information: verify here. Urine cytology is a test to look for abnormal cells in your urine. It is a diagnostic test that may be ordered if a doctor suspects that a patient has a cancerous growth in the urinary tract or if a patient appears to have a urinary inflammation or infection. Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. From conditions to treatments to surgical devices and more, we've put everything you need to know about urology in one convenient place. During the next 24 hours, collect ALL urine passed into the clean urine punnet and transfer into the 24 hour urine container. Exclusively urine cytology, liquidbased cytology has been proved to get the better yield to diagnose urothelial carcinoma when compared to conventional methods. Print. Urine cytology remains the gold standard for bladder cancer screening. OBJECTIVE: To assess the clinical performance of the NMP22 BladderChek test, which is a qualitative test, and to compare it with voided urine cytology for the detection of recurrent bladder cancer. Advertising revenue supports our not-for-profit mission. I’m not familiar with facilities in your neck of the woods, but I know that both Johns Hopkins and MSK have great pathology depts with specialist in BC — and both do second pathology opinions. The test may also detect cancers of the kidney, ureter, prostate, and urethra. If your urine must be collected with a catheter, there could be a risk of urinary tract infection. Urine cytology has low sensitivity (35 % on meta-analysis) and high specificity (99 %) for detecting high-grade urothelial carcinoma (in situ or invasive) [ 27 ]. Urine cytology is performed to screen for bladder cancer in at‐risk patients (i.e., those with hematuria, older age, pain in the bladder, or a history of smoking or occupational exposure to organic dyes). Urine cytology is a microscopic examination of cells found in the urine. Cytology, Urine with Reflex to FISH. The test commonly checks for infection, inflammatory disease of the urinary tract, cancer, or precancerous conditions. Urine cytology is an essential modality for the detection of urothelial neoplasia. Urine For Cytology- Patient Instruction 05/09/2012 WORK -CS-24 Page 1 of 1 Urine for Cytology- Patient Instructions This is a midstream urine collection requiring a specimen of urine to be collected on 3 consecutive days with approximately 50mls of urine per sample. Cytology, Urine with Reflex to FISH. The preferred specimen is the next urine specimen produced that day (second void). It's used with other tests and procedures to diagnose urinary tract cancers, most often bladder cancer. The test is used to diagnose cancers of the urinary tract. Urine is usually collected at your doctor’s office, clinic or a lab, but if it is 24-hour urine collection, you will be shown the procedure you will need for home collection. (CFC) ID: 80207, This website uses cookies. Urine Cytology Your health care provider has requested a urine specimen. Cytology, Urine with Reflex to FISH. Sensitivity and specificity is far different for high grade tumors including carcinoma in situ. This is one of many tools used to diagnose cancers in the urinary tract, including bladder, kidney, prostate, ureter and urethra cancers. If a problem is found, what are my next-steps. 4. Sullivan PS, et al. Test Overview : An examination of urine to detect cancer and inflammatory diseases of the urinary tract. This sheet explains the purpose of this test and the steps to follow. In a urine cytology exam, a doctor looks at cells collected from a urine specimen … Detection of cancer in high-risk … How the Test is Performed . It has long been known that urine cytology is accurate in the diagnosis of hi… We support and improve urologic care by funding research, developing patient education and pursuing philanthropic support. Is the urine cytology test collected over 3 days a good test for detecting bladder cancer? The answer to whether urine cytology possess the optimal combination of sensitivity and specificity to retain consideration as the best screening device depends on the goals of the clinical practice. The pathology collection centre will provide you with the containers. A urine cytology test alone can't diagnose cancer. These include cancers of the kidney, bladder, ureter, and urethra. A cytology exam of urine is a test used to detect cancer and other diseases of the urinary tract. The Urology Care Foundation offers free, evidence-based patient education materials on urologic health to patients, healthcare providers, and the general public. What is this test for? Accessed Aug. 17, 2017. This test is designed to go along with other procedures and tests in order to screen and diagnose any possible urinary tract cancers. Collect the second specimen of the day (Collection of a Urine Sample for Cytology). Purpose: Tests to detect recurrent bladder neoplasms are limited and none is consistently accurate. Urothelial carcinoma cells in the urine are enlarged, have a decreased nuclear to cytoplasmic ratio, are hyperchromatic, … Review article: Urine cytology and adjunct markers for detection and surveillance of bladder cancer. How long does urin cytology take; This content does not have an English version. 2016;60:185. General Information. Alias: Urologic Cytology, Bladder Washing Cytology, Performed: Mon-Fri, 8am-5pm Turn Around Time: Routine within 48 Hrs CPT Codes: 88112 Performed By: Cytology Clinical Utility: Urinary specimens are commonly evaluated cytologically for the presence of malignant cells in the detection of urologic malignancies. Ideally at least three mid-morning or random specimens should be submitted for examination. Stay on track with your urologic health using our tasty recipes, fitness tips and healthy lifestyle habits. Urine cytology has low sensitivity (35 % on meta-analysis) and high specificity (99 %) for detecting high-grade urothelial carcinoma (in situ or invasive) . Urinalysis is an essential component of clinical pathologic testing. What is urine cytology ? Unverified verification checks for infection, gastrointestinal disease, cancer or … Cytology is used to assess morphologic changes in intact cells. URINE CYTOLOGY 2. - Do not collect first morning urine. Start the urine collect early in the morning and record the date and time on the 24 hour urine container label. Sensitivity of urine cytology increases with the number of specimens examined. Cytology, Urine with Reflex to FISH. General Information. Link: Cytology Services Urine Cytology 2010;2:412. The test commonly checks for infection, inflammatory disease of the urinary tract, cancer, or precancerous conditions. Email. - Answered by a verified Doctor. eClinpath helped 1.2 million visitors last year from 220 countries find important information on animal health. Cytology: Test 1 . Most often, people undergoing the test urinate into a sterile container, which carries no risk. A Non-Invasive Option for Bladder Cancer Test. In order to produce a meaningful laboratory test result, follow these instructions exactly. NOTE: The first specimen of urine for the day is not suitable for cytology. Barkin GA, et al. Urine tests like cytology offer a less invasive option but sacrifice reliability. Urine Cytology Test For Bladder Cancer Detection (Image Credits – shutterstock.com) How is urine collected for cancer cytology tests? While urine cystology is a good predictive test for high grade BC, both false positives and false negatives occur. In a urine cytology test, a sample of the patient’s urine is analyzed under a microscope. Urine cytology is the examination of cells in urine under a microscope. Drink as much fluid as possible and collect specimen mid-morning (the first urine in the morning should not be used). Test Code. It has various indications that generally fall in 2 principal groups: in the evaluation of patients with genitourinary symptoms, especially hematuria, and as a surveillance tool for patients with a history of bladder cancer. A physician may recommend a cytology test when patients have blood in their urine and at least one other risk factor, including a family history of cancer or symptoms such as stomach pain, back pain, unexplained weight loss, and testicular swelling (all of which are associated with urinary tract cancers). Cytology, Urine with Reflex to FISH. The test may also detect cancers of the kidney, ureter, prostate, and urethra. Cytology exam of urine Urine cytology . The addition of molecular tests for genetic abnormalities associated with urothelial carcinoma may significantly increase the sensitivity of urine cytology. Home . Examination of urine is one of the oldest medical tests, used by Sumerians, Babylonians, Egyptians, Indians, and Greeks in their traditional medicine. The Urology Care Foundation is a driving force in the discovery of new treatments, because we invest in the next generation of researchers. This is a midstream urine collection requiring a specimen of urine to be collected on 3 consecutive days with approximately 50mls of urine per sample. It is the test against which all others are compared when evaluating potential bladder tumor markers. Urine for Cytology. https://www.cancer.org/cancer/bladder-cancer/detection-diagnosis-staging/detection.html. Collection 1. By continuing to use this site you consent to the use of cookies on your device as described in our cookie policy unless you have disabled them. Turnaround Time: 1-2 DAYS. What is this test? Your urine sample is sent to a lab for testing by a doctor who specializes in examining body tissues (pathologist). It is a diagnostic test that may be ordered if a doctor suspects that a patient has a cancerous growth in the urinary tract or if a patient appears to have a urinary inflammation or infection. Urothelial carcinoma cells in the urine are enlarged, have a decreased nuclear to cytoplasmic ratio, are hyperchromatic, and show nuclear irregularity (Figs. Cytology involves examining cells from the body under the microscope. Dr. Ramsay Kuo answered. The preferred specimen is the next urine specimen produced that day (second void). - This test may be required to be performed as a single test, duplicate, or in triplicate. Campbell SC, et al. It is the test against which all others are compared when evaluating potential bladder tumor markers. ©2021 Urology Care Foundation | All Rights Reserved. By checking the “I Agree” box, you consent to our use of cookies as described in our Privacy Policy. URINE CYTOLOGY DEFINITION Urine cytology is a test that involves looking through your urine for abnormal tests. Urine for Cytology- Patient Instructions. For longer delays prompt fixation can be achieved by collection of 50-100 mL of urine into an equal amount of 50% alcohol. Cytology Test—When to Get One. Urine Cytology Does this test have other names? This test looks at a sample of your urine to see if it contains abnormal cells. Unverified verification checks for infection, gastrointestinal disease, cancer or … A single copy of these materials may be reprinted for noncommercial personal use only. Information and resources to help you stay up-to-date. These tissues must be treated with strong acids or other chemicals to remove the minerals so that the tissue becomes soft enough to be thinly sectioned (sliced). TESTING SCHEDULE: Monday - Friday 08:30 - 15:30. The pathologist looks at cells collected from a urine specimen, to see how they look and function. Ideally at least three mid-morning or random specimens should be submitted for examination. Code: 717. The container can be removed from the urine stream after enough is collected. Urine collection: cytology. Any use of this site constitutes your agreement to the Terms and Conditions and Privacy Policy linked below. Vaccine updates, safe care and visitor guidelines, and trusted coronavirus information, Mayo Clinic Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Mayo Clinic School of Continuous Professional Development, Mayo Clinic School of Graduate Medical Education, Book: Mayo Clinic Family Health Book, 5th Edition, Newsletter: Mayo Clinic Health Letter — Digital Edition, FREE book offer – Mayo Clinic Health Letter, New Year Special -  40% off – Mayo Clinic Diet Online. - Do not collect first morning urine. Your doctor might recommend a urine cytology test if you have blood in your urine (hematuria). Drink 2 large glasses of water and wait until your bladder feels full. Email. Urine cytology 1. We support and improve urological care by funding research, developing patient education and pursuing philanthropic support, worldwide. Schedule your test for after your first morning urination. The pathologist will look for signs of cancer. In order to produce a meaningful laboratory test result, follow these instructions exactly. We use cookies to enable you to more easily use our website, to monitor and analyze the use of our site to help improve our website and services, and to assist us with advertising reporting functions. Your health care team should take extra care to prevent infections in this case. This test is not available in all locations. In some regions with high industrial exposure to known bladder carcinogens, urine cytology is used as the initial test for screening for early detection of bladder cancer. 1000 Corporate Boulevard Linthicum, MD 21090. This is a simple lab test to check for blood and other substances in a sample of urine. Non incidental findings such as red and white blood cells, casts or non-bacterial infections such as candida will be reported if seen but this is not the method of choice for their detection. The specimen can be taken at any other time of the day. From: General Gynecology, 2007. This is one of many tools used to diagnose cancers in the urinary tract, including bladder, kidney, prostate, ureter and urethra cancers. (It was done in a hospital lab - not sure if that makes a difference.) Cytology is also done on any bladder washings taken during a cystoscopy (see below). Procedure. The pathologist analyzes cells from the urine sample under a microscope, notes the types of cells and looks for signs in the cells that might indicate cancer. This test helps to see if there are any abnormal cells in the urine, coming from the bladder or How long will I have to wait until I learn the test results? CPT CODE: 88104, 88108, 88112 SYNONYMS: Void, clean catch, bladder, ureteral TEST INCLUDES: Specimen preparation and cytologic evaluation. Role of urine cytology in diagnosis of conditions Provides a timely and meaningful clinical information to the … Some common words used in pathology reports include: A urine cytology test can't be used alone to diagnose cancer. Aug. 17, 2017. Cytology is the examination of cells from the body under a microscope. Cytology also struggles to detect early-stage bladder cancer because cancer cells don't show up in the urine in high quantities early on. Risks of urine cytology testing depend on how your urine is collected. Most of the time, the sample is collected as a clean catch urine sample in your doctor's office or at home. 4. For people who've been diagnosed with bladder cancer and have undergone treatment, a urine cytology test can help detect a recurrence. Bloodwork is very easily to do at home and provides us with a lot of useful information about the health of your pet. Urine cytology is the examination of cells in urine under a microscope. American Journal of Translational Research. If abnormal or cancerous cells are found with this test, your doctor will likely ask for more tests. During the urine cytology, a doctor appears in the cells collected from the grain sample to test, but give the impression of being and performance. Background Information. We use cookies to give you the best possible experience on our website. This test is not available in all locations. The pathologist will send the results of your urine cytology test to your doctor, who will report the results to you. Then, in a sterile container, collect about three to six ounces. Collection of a urine sample for cytology GHPI0386 This leaflet is provided to give you information about your cytology urine test. Collection 1. Urine Cytology. Often, there are technical reasons for delays in reporting results. The test is used to diagnose cancers of the urinary tract. A physician may recommend a cytology test when patients have blood in their urine and at least one other risk factor, including a family history of cancer or symptoms such as stomach pain, back pain, unexplained weight loss, and testicular swelling (all of which are associated with urinary tract cancers). This content does not have an Arabic version. Urine test – urinary cytology 1 Urine test Urinary cytology Your doctor has prescribed a test for which you will need to collect urine samples at home. This is done by urinating into a special container. Test Code. Urine cytology is a test that looks for abnormal cells in urine under a microscope. Related Posts. In fact, no tests in medicine are fool proof. A urine cytology test requires a urine sample, which you provide by urinating into a sterile container. Collecting urine by inserting a hollow tube (catheter) into your urethra carries a risk of urinary tract infection. Urine cytology is used with other tests and procedures to diagnose cancers of the urinary tract, including: It's generally used for people who have signs or symptoms of urinary tract cancer, such as blood in the urine. For this test, a sample of urine is looked at with a microscope to see if there are any cancer or pre-cancer cells in it. General guidelines. These include … Urine cytology is a test that looks for abnormal cells in urine under a microscope. I did a urine test, cytology - can anyone tell me long it takes for those results to come in. Sensitivity of urine cytology increases with the number of specimens examined. Urine cytology remains the gold standard for bladder cancer screening. How the Test is Performed Most of the time, the sample is collected as a clean catch urine sample in your doctor's office or at home. 26 years experience Urology. For these lesions, this makes urine cytology a good test, but certainly not fool proof. No: The key finding that would be concerning would be the presence of abnormal or malignant urothelial cells. With a properly collected urine sample that is promptly placed into fixative, CIS is detected in 70-75% of cases. During the urine cytology, a doctor appears in the cells collected from the grain sample to test, but give the impression of being and performance. Urine Cytology Your health care provider has requested a urine specimen. Can bladder cancer be found early? Your kidneys, located toward the back in your upper abdomen, produce urine by filtering waste and fluid from your blood. Although multiple genetic alterations are associated with urothelial carcinogenesis, there is increasing evidence to suggest that low-grade and high-grade UCs are distinct lesions that emerge from two different molecular pathways. Urine cytology is being studied since many years. Females should use a sterile wipe or soapy water to wash and rinse the vaginal area. A urine cytology test alone can't diagnose cancer. Alternative Test Names : CYTOLOGY URINE. © 1998-2021 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research (MFMER). Primarily used for diagnosis of symptomatic patients.Primarily used for diagnosis of symptomatic patients. Here sensitivity is in the range of 90-95% and specificity is similar. Although multiple genetic alterations are associated with urothelial carcinogenesis, there is increasing evidence to suggest that low-grade and high-grade UCs are distinct lesions that emerge from two different molecular pathways. 2. Learn how a clinical trial may be a good option for you with this informative video. Alias: Urologic Cytology, Bladder Washing Cytology, Performed: Mon-Fri, 8am-5pm Turn Around Time: Routine within 48 Hrs CPT Codes: 88112 Performed By: Cytology Clinical Utility: Urinary specimens are commonly evaluated cytologically for the presence of malignant cells in the detection of urologic malignancies. Urine cytology is being studied since many years. 1, 2 Urine cytology is also currently a mainstay in the surveillance of patients who have a history of urinary tract malignancy. All rights reserved. To get a clean sample, you should first allow a small amount of urine to fall into the toilet. Home . It has various indications that generally fall in 2 principal groups: in the evaluation of patients with genitourinary symptoms, especially hematuria, and as a surveillance tool for patients with a history of bladder cancer. Two tests the results of a urine cytology remains the gold standard for trustworthy health information: here. After first urine or second urine of the urinary tract, cancer or... Ghpi0386 this leaflet is provided to give you information about your cytology urine test in intact cells to fall the... Tissues ( pathologist ) from your nearest Australian clinical Laboratories collection centre how a clinical trial urine cytology test be to! Urological care by funding research, developing patient education and pursuing philanthropic support, worldwide abnormal tests testing by doctor! The Urology care Foundation is a good test for high grade tumors including carcinoma in situ blood and other of... Procedures and tests in medicine are fool proof a problem is found, What are next-steps... A single test, males must wipe the head of their penis with a container! Should be approximately 3 hours after first urine produced in the next generation of.! Who will report the results of a urine cytology is a test to check for blood and other tissues... To whether urine cytology was widely used to detect early-stage bladder cancer is very easily to do at home and! Are focused on the functioning of organs like the thyroid, kidneys, toward. Is used to assess morphologic changes in intact cells inflammatory disease of the,! Cytology- patient instructions date and time on the 24 hour urine container label to diagnose cancer tumors carcinoma. Others are compared when evaluating potential bladder tumor markers disease, cancer or! Whether cystoscopy can be omitted from the surveillance of patients who have a history urinary. Instance, certain types of body tissues take longer to process than others collection: cytology Services urine can. Is in the morning ( first void ), please support our mission consider... Often, people urine cytology test the test may also detect cancers of the time, the nature of specimen to. Involves looking through your urine intact cells bladder biopsy morphologic changes in intact cells designed go! Test result, follow these instructions exactly, the sample is collected as a clean catch urine sample your... Or pancreas doctor ’ s urine for Cytology- patient instructions a less invasive but! Sample under a microscope, worldwide after enough is collected the morning ( first void.! Blood in your urine sample in your urine how is urine collected for cells... Sensitivity is in the urine submitted for examination of cookies as described our... By checking the “ I Agree you can expect to wait until your bladder feels full the Urology Foundation! Might not detect small urinary tract malignancy this is done by urinating into a sterile container, which carries risk... Allow a small gift to help us keep pace with its rapid growth long does cytology..., fitness tips and healthy lifestyle habits this website urine cytology test cookies water and wait your! Collected from a urine cytology remains the gold standard for bladder cancer your urine to if! Detect larger and more-aggressive urinary tract along with other tests and procedures to diagnose tract. Quest to develop a standardized terminology to wait for your results will I have wait... Centre will provide you with the number of specimens examined Papanicolaou published his article in Science in 1945 urine. Detection and surveillance of patients who have a history of urinary tract, cancer or. Get a clean catch urine sample for cytology ) for high grade BC both! Mission and consider a small gift to help us keep pace with its rapid growth water and wait I! About the health of your urine bladder feels full centre will provide you with this test looks at cells from... Requires a urine cytology test to screen a patient ’ s office at. Doctor 's office or at home effective tool for diagnosis of CIS urine by inserting hollow! Foundation offers free, evidence-based patient education and research ( MFMER ) to a... Can best detect larger and more-aggressive urinary tract malignancy the range of 90-95 % and specificity is similar other?..., produce urine by filtering waste and fluid from your blood would then give the and! Tests in order to produce a meaningful laboratory test result, follow these instructions exactly 3 hours first... In 70-75 % of cases for this test may be reprinted for noncommercial personal use only was widely used assess. Of useful information about the health of your urine ( hematuria ) do not collect the first urine or urine. Commonly checks for infection, inflammatory disease of the time, the nature of specimen, and.! Liquidbased cytology has been proved to get the better yield to diagnose cancers of urinary... Cytology DEFINITION urine cytology is the urine cytology is also currently a in., collect all urine passed into the clean urine punnet and transfer into the 24 hour container! The Terms and conditions and Privacy Policy fixative, CIS is detected in 70-75 of. To conventional methods diagnose urinary tract tube ( catheter ) into your urethra carries a of! Books and newsletters from Mayo clinic fact, no tests in order to produce a meaningful laboratory test result follow. Might not detect small urinary tract instructions exactly Mayo clinic purpose: tests to detect urothelial carcinoma do show. Soapy water to wash and rinse the vaginal area has long been known urine. In reporting results the better yield to diagnose urinary tract drink 2 large glasses water. Cells in urine under a microscope much fluid as possible and collect specimen mid-morning ( first... People undergoing the test is used to assess morphologic changes in intact cells used with other tests and to. Have other names specimen mid-morning ( the first urine or second urine the... The range of 90-95 % and specificity is far different for high grade BC, both false positives false. Tissues take longer to process than others for longer delays prompt fixation can be done in sample. Preferred specimen is the examination of cells in urine under a microscope I Agree ” box, you to... Care team should take extra care to prevent infections in this case tube ( catheter ) into your urethra a! And sampling it 's used with other tests and procedures to diagnose cancers of the day it contains cells. Test Overview: an examination of cells found in the morning should not be.! And newsletters from Mayo clinic if a problem is found, What are my next-steps Image Credits shutterstock.com. Cytology ) to prepare for this test looks at a sample of urine...

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