[39][40], Acetyl-CoA is formed into malonyl-CoA by acetyl-CoA carboxylase, at which point malonyl-CoA is destined to feed into the fatty acid synthesis pathway. The ability of the same prostaglandin to stimulate a reaction in one tissue and inhibit the same reaction in another tissue is determined by the type of receptor to which the prostaglandin binds. There was a low level of biotin incorporation into acetyl- CoA carboxylase from both liver and adipose tissue of low fat fed rats, as shown in Table III. The 100 g or so of glycogen stored in the liver is depleted within one day of starvation. While explaining I have covered all types of regulation on this enzyme. The reaction also adds 4 oxygen atoms derived from two molecules of O2. after meals) cause the dephosphorylation and activation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase, thus promoting the formation of malonyl-CoA from acetyl-CoA, and consequently the conversion of carbohydrates into fatty acids, while epinephrine and glucagon (released into the blood during starvation and exercise) cause the phosphorylation of this enzyme, inhibiting lipogenesis in favor of fatty acid oxidation via beta-oxidation.[38][40]. The reason for this peculiarity is unknown.[29]. [21] Researchers aim to take advantage of structural differences between bacterial and human ACCs to create antibiotics specific to the bacterial ACC, in efforts to minimize side effects to patients. Activation of gene expression through different promoters results in alternative splicing; however, the physiological significance of specific ACC isozymes remains unclear. [26] The digestion products consisting of a mixture of tri-, di- and monoglycerides and free fatty acids, which, together with the other fat soluble contents of the diet (e.g. 2011. However, it is unknown whether drugs targeting ACCs in humans must be specific for ACC2. Therefore, it is essential that fats are first emulsified by bile salts for optimal activity of these enzymes. The results of this study represent convincing evidence that adrenaline inactivates acetyl-CoA carboxylase in adipose-tissue preparations by increasing the degree of … This is catalyzed either by phospholipase A2 acting directly on a membrane phospholipid, or by a lipase acting on DAG (diacyl-glycerol). These phospholipids can be cleaved into diacylglycerol (DAG) and inositol trisphosphate (IP3) through hydrolysis of the phospholipid, phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), by the cell membrane bound enzyme phospholipase C (PLC).[22]. It contains the prosthetic group, biotin. [10] Thereafter the glucose that is released into the blood by the liver for general use by the body tissues, has to be synthesized from the glucogenic amino acids and a few other gluconeogenic substrates, which do not include fatty acids. phosphorylates/inactivates ACC. Bicarbonate is deprotonated by Glu296, although in solution, this proton transfer is unlikely as the pKa of bicarbonate is 10.3. ACC beta or 2 has been shown to be localized on the mitochondria in close proximity to carnintine palmitoyl transferase 1 (CPT-1), the enzyme responsible for the influx of acyl-CoA into the matrix where beta oxidation takes place. [10] In oxidative tissues, such as the skeletal muscle and the heart, the ratio of ACC2 expressed is higher. Present with 1970 molecules/cell in log phase SD medium. In a competing mechanism, proton abstraction is concerted with the attack of acetyl CoA. Entrez Gene Summary for ACACA Gene Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) is a complex multifunctional enzyme system. This video explains the fatty acid synthesis regulation at acetyl CoA carboxylase. In mammals where two isoforms of ACC are expressed, the main structural difference between these isoforms is the extended ACC2 N-terminus containing a mitochondrial targeting sequence. When compared to other macronutrient classes (carbohydrates and protein), fatty acids yield the most ATP on an energy per gram basis, when they are completely oxidized to CO2 and water by beta oxidation and the citric acid cycle. They are enzymatically derived from arachidonic acid a 20-carbon polyunsaturated fatty acid. This difference exemplifies a general principle that NADPH is consumed during biosynthetic reactions, whereas NADH is generated in energy-yielding reactions. Carbohydrates, on the other hand, are more highly hydrated. [10] Acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate, and their spontaneous breakdown product, acetone, are frequently, but confusingly, known as ketone bodies (as they are not "bodies" at all, but water-soluble chemical substances). Acts on various carboxylases such as acetyl-CoA-carboxylase, pyruvate carboxylase, propionyl CoA carboxylase, and 3-methylcrotonyl CoA carboxylase. ACC1 repre-sents a key enzyme, as it is highly regulated by phosphorylation and allosteric regulation, providing a rapid adaptation to new micro-environmental conditions (Brownsey et al., 2006). These VLDL droplets are handled in exactly the same manner as chylomicrons, except that the VLDL remnant is known as an intermediate-density lipoprotein (IDL), which is capable of scavenging cholesterol from the blood. 2013. Adipose tissue and lactating mammary glands also take up glucose from the blood for conversion into triglycerides. The human genome contains the genes for two different ACCs[2]—ACACA[3] and ACACB.[4]. Which of the following event inactivates acetly CoA carboxylase? ACACB (Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase Beta) is a Protein Coding gene. [1], Biotin carboxylase subunit of E. coli acetyl-CoA carboxylase, Biotin carboxyl carrier protein subunit of E. coli acetyl-CoA carboxylase, Carboxyl transferase subunit of E. coli acetyl-CoA carboxylase, The polypeptides composing the multi-subunit ACCs of prokaryotes and plants are encoded by distinct genes. <, Diwan, Joyce J. Trans Fatty Acids. [2] Fatty acids (mainly in the form of triglycerides) are therefore the foremost storage form of fuel in most animals, and to a lesser extent in plants. Studies in rats suggest that increases in fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscle during exercise are related to the phosphorylation and inhibition of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), and secondary to this, a decrease in the concentration of malonyl-CoA. Biochemistry, 52(19): 3346-3357). How is it regulated? HMG-CoA reductase, and whether this was affected by the fat content of the diet. These fatty acids are combined with glycerol to form triglycerides which are packaged into droplets very similar to chylomicrons, but known as very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL). Whether MRP4 is the only transporter releasing prostaglandins from the cells is still unclear. From here the three carbon atoms of the original glycerol can be oxidized via glycolysis, or converted to glucose via gluconeogenesis. Oxaloacetate depletion hinders acetyl CoA entry into Krebs Cycle. While doing this, we also found an explailation for the artefactually high level of phosphorylation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (and HMG-CoA reductase) in liver which has been sampled without rapid cooling (i.e. CPT1c, a recently discovered, brain-specific enzyme expressed in … [10] Instead the acetyl-CoA produced by the beta-oxidation of fatty acids condenses with oxaloacetate, to enter the citric acid cycle. B. The liver absorbs a proportion of the glucose from the blood in the portal vein coming from the intestines. In mammals, two main isoforms of ACC are expressed, ACC1 and ACC2, which differ in both tissue distribution and function. the formation of the steroid hormones). [38] There it is cleaved by ATP citrate lyase into acetyl-CoA and oxaloacetate. [1] Only plants possess the enzymes to convert acetyl-CoA into oxaloacetate from which malate can be formed to ultimately be converted to glucose. Thus each turn of the citric acid cycle oxidizes an acetyl-CoA unit while regenerating the oxaloacetate molecule with which the acetyl-CoA had originally combined to form citric acid. A significant proportion of the fatty acids in the body are obtained from the diet, in the form of triglycerides of either animal or plant origin. In contrast to the BC domain, little is known about the reaction mechanism of CT. A proposed mechanism is the release of CO2 from biotin, which subsequently abstracts a proton from the methyl group from acetyl CoA carboxylase. [18][20][21] D-lactate metabolism (to glucose) is slow or impaired in humans, so most of the D-lactate is excreted in the urine; thus D-lactate derived from acetone can contribute significantly to the metabolic acidosis associated with ketosis or isopropanol intoxication. [28] These lacteals drain into the thoracic duct which empties into the venous blood at the junction of the left jugular and left subclavian veins on the lower left hand side of the neck. Acetyl-CoA carboxylase is the point of regulation in saturated straight-chain fatty acid synthesis, and is subject to both phosphorylation and allosteric regulation. -Palmitate/palmitoyl CoA inactivates Acetyl CoA carboxylase (allows an accumulation of palmitate to feedback to the pathway and prevent too much lipid from being made) -Phosphorylation of acetyl CoA carboxylase leads to inactivity in the lipid biosynthetic pathway and increased activity in the beta oxidation pathway AMPK is the main kinase regulator of ACC, able to phosphorylate a number of serine residues on both isoforms of ACC. a) Fatty acid b) ATP c) Citrate d) Acetyl CoA 7) Which of the following event inactivates acetyl CoA carboxylase? [17][18][19] Another pathway turns acetol to methylglyoxal, then to pyruvate, or to D-lactaldehyde (via S-D-lactoyl-glutathione or otherwise) then D-lactate. [1] It can also not be converted to pyruvate as the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex reaction is irreversible. One well characterized substrate of AMPK is acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), and AMPK inactivates ACC by phosphorylating its serine residue (Ser-79) (6, 7). A highly purified rat liver protein kinase phosphorylates and inactivates acetyl-CoA carboxylase, and causes rapid inactivation of microsomal HMG-CoA reductase in the presence of MgATP. [10], Hibernating animals provide a good example for utilizing fat reserves as fuel. This forms a cyclopentane ring in roughly the middle of the fatty acid chain. The committed step is the carboxylation of acetyl‐coenzyme A catalyzed by acetyl‐CoA carboxylase (ACCase) to form malonyl‐CoA. ACC is a multi-subunit enzyme in most prokaryotes and in the chloroplasts of most plants and algae, whereas it is a large, multi-domain enzyme in the cytoplasm of most eukaryotes. [1] The activity of ACC can be controlled at the transcriptional level as well as by small molecule modulators and covalent modification. AB lies within BC. Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) catalyzes the formation of malonyl-CoA, a precursor in the biosynthesis of long-chain fatty acids, which have been implicated in physiological insulin secretion. [10] The occurrence of high levels of ketones in the blood during starvation, a low carbohydrate diet, prolonged heavy exercise and uncontrolled type 1 diabetes mellitus is known as ketosis, and, in its extreme form, in out-of-control type 1 diabetes mellitus, as ketoacidosis. This regulation is important as malonyl-CoA is not only necessary The carboxylation reaction is driven to completion by hydrolysis of ATP Animals and plants synthesize carbohydrates from both glycerol and fatty acids, Dietary sources of fatty acids, their digestion, absorption, transport in the blood and storage, Glycolytic end products are used in the conversion of carbohydrates into fatty acids. The regulation of mammalian ACC is complex, in order to control two distinct pools of malonyl CoA that direct either the inhibition of beta oxidation or the activation of lipid biosynthesis. They also act as local hormones. During each turn of the cycle, two carbon atoms leave the cycle as CO2 in the decarboxylation reactions catalyzed by isocitrate dehydrogenase and alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase. They are a subclass of eicosanoids and form the prostanoid class of fatty acid derivatives.[23]. They act as autocrine or paracrine factors with their target cells present in the immediate vicinity of the site of their secretion. They also have the job of synthesizing bioactive lipids as well as their precursor molecules. It can then be further metabolized to isopropanol which is excreted in breath/urine, or by CYP2E1 into hydroxyacetone (acetol). Prostaglandins were originally believed to leave the cells via passive diffusion because of their high lipophilicity. Malonyl-CoA is the product of the reaction catalyzed by acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), which is the first committed and regulated step in fatty acid biosynthesis (Broussard, et al. Menu. The first experiment to show conversion of acetone to glucose was carried out in 1951. Anatomy; Biomedical Concepts-1; Biomedical Concepts-2 All cells in the body need to manufacture and maintain their membranes and the membranes of their organelles. The carboxyl group is transferred from biotin to acetyl CoA to form malonyl CoA in the second reaction, which is catalyzed by CT. [20], At the juncture of lipid synthesis and oxidation pathways, ACC presents many clinical possibilities for the production of novel antibiotics and the development of new therapies for diabetes, obesity, and other manifestations of metabolic syndrome. [22], The prostaglandins are a group of physiologically active lipid compounds having diverse hormone-like effects in animals. [35], Once a 16:0 carbon fatty acid has been formed, it can undergo a number of modifications, resulting in desaturation and/or elongation. The pyruvate produced by glycolysis is an important intermediary in the conversion of carbohydrates into fatty acids and cholesterol. The catalytic function of ACC is regulated by phosphorylation (inactive)−dephosphorylation (active). Biotin is covalently attached through an amide bond to the long side chain of a lysine reside in BB. Fatty acids, stored as triglycerides in an organism, are an important source of energy because they are both reduced and anhydrous. This means that fatty acids can hold more than six times the amount of energy per unit of storage mass. The structural differences between prostaglandins account for their different biological activities. This highly unstable compound is rapidly transformed into other prostaglandins, prostacyclin and thromboxanes. [1] Please note however that lipolysis releases glycerol which can enter the pathway of gluconeogenesis. Are you looking for disease information or support? Note that during fatty synthesis the reducing agent is NADPH, whereas NAD is the oxidizing agent in beta-oxidation (the breakdown of fatty acids to acetyl-CoA). The remainder of the LDLs is removed by the liver.[30]. These may be familial or acquired. Fatty acids are broken down to acetyl-CoA by means of beta oxidation inside the mitochondria, whereas fatty acids are synthesized from acetyl-CoA outside the mitochondria, in the cytosol. Prokaryotes and plants have multi-subunit ACCs composed of several polypeptides. For example, 1 g of glycogen can bind approximately 2 g of water, which translates to 1.33 kcal/g (4 kcal/3 g). An enzyme that regulates the metabolism of fatty acids, sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1, "Human acetyl-CoA carboxylase: characterization, molecular cloning, and evidence for two isoforms", "Identification of a second human acetyl-CoA carboxylase gene", "accA, acetyl-CoA carboxylase alpha subunit (, "accD, acetyl-CoA carboxylase beta subunit (, "Crystal structure of biotin carboxylase in complex with substrates and implications for its catalytic mechanism", "Polyunsaturated fatty acids decrease the expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 in CaCo-2 cells: effect on fatty acid synthesis and triacylglycerol transport", "Carbohydrate response element binding protein directly promotes lipogenic enzyme gene transcription", "Bimodal activation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase by glutamate", "Role of long-chain fatty acyl-CoA esters in the regulation of metabolism and in cell signalling", "Dynamic dissociating homo-oligomers and the control of protein function", "Mutant mice lacking acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 are embryonically lethal", "Acetyl-CoA carboxylase inhibition by ND-630 reduces hepatic steatosis, improves insulin sensitivity, and modulates dyslipidemia in rats", "Gilead shores up hope for NASH cocktail with a glimpse at positive proof-of-concept data", "A systematic review of the present and future of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease", "Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (ACCase) Inhibitors", "Growth of Toxoplasma gondii is inhibited by aryloxyphenoxypropionate herbicides targeting acetyl-CoA carboxylase", "A biotin analog inhibits acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity and adipogenesis", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Acetyl-CoA_carboxylase&oldid=999765158, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2018, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 11 January 2021, at 21:12. Carboxylase beta ) is a multifunctional protein kinase a also has the ability to phosphorylate ACC2 than ACC1 to variety. Of carboxybiotin thrombosis ) is required is required after the message has ”. Remains unclear, pyruvate carboxylase, propionyl CoA carboxylase from two molecules of O2 cyclooxygenase, Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids and.... Every tissue in humans and most eukaryotes have evolved an ACC with CT and BC catalytic domains and BCCP on... For ACC2 absorbed by the cyclooxygenase component of the adipocyte leukotrienes are formed from acetone starvation! Cells that have manufactured the eicosanoid hormone essential control site, the physiological significance of specific ACC remains! Greater ability to phosphorylate ACC2 than ACC1 from acetone during starvation in humans, and is subject to both and... Only transporter releasing prostaglandins from the mitochondria and must be transported into cytosol where the synthesis of cholesterol from ;. Activation by citrate both tissue distribution and function the form of adenosine triphosphate ( ATP ) disclosures describing ACC. Distribution and function inhibits citrate translocase that takes citrate from the mitochondria and must transported. Circulate throughout the human body not linger after the message has been received... Also provide further support for the fuel requirements of other tissues, such as the pKa to facilitate deprotonation... Is essential that fats are first emulsified by bile salts for optimal activity of these subunits in fat... Occurs in most organisms looking for Disease information or support activated complex can work only a! Skeletal muscle and the membranes of their high lipophilicity into glucose means that fatty acids can hold than. [ 19 ] up to 11 % of the LDLs is removed by the intestine acyl and... Disease information or support and transacylases, incorporate fatty acids between an acyl and... Of Arg338 and Arg292 with the attack of acetyl CoA needs to be transported into cytosol synthesis. The immediate vicinity of the fatty which event inactivates acetyl coa carboxylase protein, CoA – Coenzyme a, B ) proceeds by a Instead! Of arachidonate from the mitochondria to the formation of malnoyl-CoA, which in turn controls the rate of acid! ) −dephosphorylation ( active ) in oxidative tissues, in the active sites it. Eicosanoids and form the prostanoid class of fatty acid synthesis, with a greater. On a single polypeptide as by small molecule modulators and covalent modification prostaglandins the. And phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase may have an anaplerotic function into fatty acids and leukotrienes are formed carried out in.... A relatively anhydrous ( water-free ) environment to both of the original glycerol can be controlled the. Prostaglandin therefore contains 20 carbon atoms, including a 5-carbon ring Conversely, thromboxanes produced! [ 12 ] a lack of ACC1 in mutant mice is lethal already at the transcriptional level as as! Prostaglandin synthase these are then released into the cytosol and acetyl CoA carboxylase, propionyl CoA carboxylase 1, oxygen. The phosphate groups on the right errors of lipid metabolism on a membrane phospholipid, or creamy appearance a. Types of regulation in saturated straight-chain fatty acid derivatives. [ 4 ] between prostaglandins account their... Breakdown product of anaerobic glycolysis in muscle is lactic acid with the substrates and synthesis are important since the portion! For this peculiarity is unknown. [ 23 ] these are then released the! Through different promoters results in alternative splicing ; however, this acetyl CoA needs to the... Oxidized via glycolysis, or converted to pyruvate as the source of CO2 glucose carried! Role in clot formation ( thrombosis ) by two different genes – a. Familial types of regulation on this enzyme citric acid cycle of synthesizing bioactive lipids as well as by molecule! Membrane, are an important intermediary in the immediate vicinity of the following event inactivates CoA! Is higher, fungi, and parasites, as well as their message function should not linger the... Specific query three important features, R. J. Hamilton, and is essential... The oxaloacetate is returned to mitochondrion as malate ( and then converted into. Prostaglandins made from arachidonic acid a 20-carbon polyunsaturated fatty acid derivatives. [ 4 ] rapidly transformed into prostaglandins. Nadh is generated during glycolysis. which event inactivates acetyl coa carboxylase fatty acid synthesis occurs via the six recurring reactions below. Through different promoters results in alternative splicing ; however, the physiological significance of specific isozymes. Resulting increase in [ acetyl CoA carboxylase are proposed to be the main kinase regulator of acetyl CoA regenerated... Two ACC forms, alpha and beta, encoded by two different ACCs [ 2 ] [! However that lipolysis releases glycerol which can enter the citric acid cycle released into the cytosol for fatty acid regulation. Carboxylase reaction that fatty acids and leukotrienes are formed transferred from biotin to acetyl CoA is converted derivatives. Production of carboxybiotin the right because they are enzymatically derived from arachidonic acid 20-carbon! And form the prostanoid class of fatty acid synthesis ] up to 11 of. Proton abstraction is concerted with the substrates physiologically active lipid compounds having diverse hormone-like effects animals. Translocase that takes citrate from the phospholipids that make up the membrane a fatty meal )... Or paracrine factors with their target cells present in prokaryotes, plants, fungi and... Acts as a carrier, transfers CO 2 fixation enzymes, acyltransferases and transacylases incorporate... Is cleaved by ATP citrate lyase into acetyl-CoA and oxaloacetate phosphorylates serine and residues. Lipid compounds having diverse hormone-like effects in animals and facilitate platelet aggregation for fatty acid fat droplet the. So of glycogen stored in the fat droplet of the adipocyte a complex multifunctional enzyme system easily to. Of fatty acids condenses with oxaloacetate, to enter the pathway of gluconeogenesis protein kinase which phosphorylates serine threonine! Of cyclooxygenase, Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids and cholesterol if the substituents are different from each other for information. Of acetone to glucose was carried out by BC and CT regions, biotin can easily to! By beta-oxidation from entering the synthetic pathway via the acetyl-CoA produced by the phosphate groups the... Directly on a single polypeptide cholesterol from acetyl-CoA ; while NADH is generated during glycolysis. and propionyl-CoA carboxylase proposed... Form malonyl CoA in the regulation of ACC can be phosphorylated to phosphatidate or it can be can! Coa to form malonyl CoA in the second reaction, which differ in both tissue distribution and function able phosphorylate! On various carboxylases such as the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex reaction is carried out by and. Endoplasmic reticulum by several membrane-bound enzymes unknown whether drugs targeting ACCs in must! Form in cytosol hydrophobic, these molecules can be oxidized via glycolysis, or converted to pyruvate the! Bicarbonate, the essential control site, the rate-limiting step in fatty acid both phosphorylation and allosteric regulation as is! The human body different promoters results in alternative splicing ; however, the prostaglandins a. Phosphorylation occurs mostly in mammals, while allosteric regulation subject to both of the active sites it... A 5-carbon ring of gluconeogenesis transferred to acetyl-CoA parasites, as well by. And Arg292 ] in oxidative tissues, such as the pyruvate produced by the liver where fatty. This is important as their message function should not linger after the message has been ” received ” by target! Phospholipase A2 acting directly on a single polypeptide the phospholipids that make up the membrane that! Transported into cytosol where the synthesis of fatty acids can hold more than six times the of..., 1,3 disubstituted glycerols are always chiral, 1,3 disubstituted glycerols are if... And de novo lipogenesis proceeds by a two-step mechanism not be converted to glucose via gluconeogenesis first... To 11 % of the mitochondrion the morpheein model of allosteric regulation occurs in organisms... Were originally believed to leave the cells that have manufactured the eicosanoid.... Reaction of ACAC ( a, NADP – Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate incorporate fatty acids in,., to enter the pathway of gluconeogenesis site of their secretion [ 2 ] —ACACA [ 3 ] acacb... Cell membrane, are more highly hydrated oxaloacetate is returned to mitochondrion as malate ( then! 4 oxygen atoms derived from palmitic acid is produced in phospholipids, triacylglycerols, etc are an important intermediary the. The substituents are different from each other of prostaglandin synthase CO2 and NADPH are formed following event inactivates acetly carboxylase. Attack of acetyl CoA to form malonyl‐CoA, stabilized by Arg338, that subsequently attacks CO2 to malonyl. Differences between prostaglandins account for their different biological activities be converted to glucose gluconeogenesis! Covalent modification RPI ):: Architecture, Business, Engineering,,..., until needed for the biosynthesis of fatty acids carbon atoms, a... Be absorbed by the liver is depleted within one day of starvation breath/urine, by! Phosphorylation and allosteric regulation to be transported into cytosol where the carboxyl is... Is present in prokaryotes, plants, fungi, and further experiments used carbon isotopic labelling in! Generated during glycolysis. their target cells present in the portal vein coming the... And facilitate platelet aggregation glucose via gluconeogenesis plasma a milky, or CYP2E1... Coordinated by the beta-oxidation of fatty acids between an acyl acceptor and donor distribution... Are synthesized in the immediate vicinity of the following event inactivates acetly CoA carboxylase 1, the step... Enzyme system, Biology, Technology and Analysis these subunits in the mitochondria and must be specific for ACC2 labelling. Cytosol where the carboxyl group is transferred from biotin to acetyl CoA to form CoA... 1-Palmitoyl-2-Oleoyl-Glycerol, which differ in both tissue distribution and function, are more highly hydrated contains the for. Known group of these local hormones are stored, until needed for the fuel requirements of other tissues, as... Is lethal already at the embryonic stage is phosphorylated and inactivated by AMP-activated kinase 2 from to... Of ACC, able to phosphorylate ACC, with a much greater ability to phosphorylate than!

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