It is demonstrated that neither the arguments leading to inconsistencies in the description of quantum-mechanical measurement nor those “explaining” the process of measurement by means of thermodynamical statistics are valid. volume 1, pages69–76(1970)Cite this article. The 5D quantum interpretation theory incorporates the best of Many Worlds and Consistent Histories into one. (RR) About this book. Rev. Within the ontological models formalism3, ψ-epistemic models can be given a precise mathematical Physik In interpretation of the process of measurement is proposed which can be placed wholly within the quantum theory. consistent interpretation of quantum theory cannot be ψ-epistemic [36,40{43]. A few of their implications are considered here. 44B, 119 (1966); L. Rosenfeld,Progr. Such collapse is a useful rule to do calculation but it is only a fiction. J. S. Bell,Rev. An interpretation of the process of measurement is proposed which can be placed wholly within the quantum theory. Before beginning to survey the various ways philosophers have attempted to interpret Everett, we must address the question of whether or not there even are rival interpretations of Everett. %��������� Instead, it is argued that the probability interpretation is compatible with an objective interpretation of the wave function. By "Copenhagen interpretation", I assume that you mean the interpretation with instantaneous "collapse" one usually encounters in an introductory quantum theory course. Conclusion. 33, 711 (1960). This change was driven by Landé's perception that wave-particle duality was an unnecessary misrepresentation of quantum processes … INTERPRETATION OF MEASUREMENT WITHIN THE QUANTUM THEORY. Foundations of Physics W. Heisenberg,Rev. Rat… : USDOE OSTI Identifier: … We introduce a realist, unextravagant interpretation of quantum theory that builds on the existing physical structure of the theory and allows experiments to have definite outcomes but leaves the theory's basic dynamical content essentially intact. The key idea of the many-worlds interpretation is that unitary quantum mechanics describes the whole universe. Any realist interpretation of quantum theory must grapple with the measurement problem and the status of state-vector collapse. Phys. It is not a question of our being ignorant about what is going on (an epistemological problem). Consequently, the quantum system is no longer closed. 4 0 obj We need now to accept that physics is essentially indeterministic; that particles may be somewhere without being at any particular place; that they may have energy and momentum without having any particular value for them; and a host more non-classical oddities. The next weaker sum-rule defines a {\it generalized measure theory} which includes quantum mechanics as a special case. Its v15 was published in Z. Natf. “The interpretation is objective and realistic, and at the same time as simple as possible. This interpretation supports such interpretations of quantum mechanics that support classical scientific principles. Mod. We focus on the meaning that our interpretation of quantum theory assigns to the sorts of density matrices that arise due to entanglement. Bryce DeWitt (1923-2004) took it to be the case that th… Rev. 108, 1070 (1957). p. 222 (1965); W. Weidlich,Z. Mod. (3) The subject-object distinction is blurred. On the interpretation of measurement in quantum theory. Altmetric Badge. 29, 454 (1957); J. In this-epistemic models that doesn’t rely on an additional assumption such as the lo-cality assumption required in [40] which con icts with the non-locality that is implied by Bell’s theorem [43,46]. A71, 195 (2016). Both the observed system and the observer system (the measuring apparatus) are considered as quantum systems. Any realist interpretation of quantum theory must grapple with the measurement problem and the status of state-vector collapse. The transactional interpretation of quantum mechanics (TIQM) takes the psi and psi* wave functions of the standard quantum formalism to be retarded (forward in time) and advanced (backward in time) waves that form a quantum interaction as a Wheeler–Feynman handshake or transaction. Rev. We like clarity and prefer to remove all mysticism,” says Liukkonen. PDF. Good, ed. %PDF-1.3 Since the entire measurement system is entangled (by quantum entanglement), the collapse of a single particle initiates the collapse of the entire measurement apparatus. Rev. Phys. Acta G. C. Wick, A. S. Wightman, and E. P. Wigner,Phys. CRITICISM OF STATISTICAL INTERPRETATIONS Results apparently in contradiction to those of the preceding section have been derived in a series of papers (2) which try to make use of the uncertainties in the microscopic properties of the apparatus of measurement. Such a program meets serious difficulties with quantummechanics, essentially because of two formal aspects of the theorywhich are common to all of its versions, from the originalnonrelativistic formulations of th… On the interpretation of measurement in quantum theory. In quantum mechanics, the Wigner’s friend [1] thought experiment has been widely discussed as it tests the va-lidity of many quantum interpretation theories. Rev. Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. The entire system including the apparatus and even the mind of the observer can be considered to develop according to the Schrodinger equation. 38, 453 (1966). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00708656, Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips, Not logged in Any realist interpretation of quantum theory must grapple with the measurement problem and the status of state-vector collapse. gH��FIQ,��w{v��[��sK8d�Nx�qS��s�˄u���������]Ze:��[ila�z�ȇ��M9�]�H�"�EAd��%i�F ��é�wu{�����M�JR�)�ejS=�XߍN��� �����8U��Ӫ#��`��V�J�����"M��,��eC����k�|�m�!Q��Ʒ�Б�}l�a�x�����|��1�r�(a1�z�:4�?�r���*����X�K�w�x����ۍ^���i:�?H^�����>$�,Z���+b����_�2���>Fp�f�Ļ�͛-~n��uwh�z�i��oM��%7������C����'�c� �����vUK�z%�\u(��2\� : USDOE OSTI Identifier: 4012054 Quantum Theory and Measurement Edited by John Archibald Wheeler and Wojciech Hubert Zurek Princeton Series in Physics Princeton University Press Princeton, New Jersey 1983 . This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution. In quantum mechanics, the measurement problem considers how, or whether, wave function collapse occurs. It offers a dramatically new interpretation that resolves puzzles and paradoxes associated with the measurement problem and the behavior of coupled systems. 33, 537 (1965); B. Jancovici and D. Schiff,Nucl. The axiomatic approaches of quantum mechanics and relativity theory are compared with approaches in which the theories are thought to describe readings of certain measurement operations. 29, 463 (1957). [REVIEW] Gianni Cassinelli & Pekka J. Lahti - 1989 - Foundations of Physics 19 (7):873-890. Found Phys 1, 69–76 (1970). The effect of the measurement on this open system is given by the generalized measurement postulate. Physik The theory was never complete or self-consistent, but was rather a set of heuristic corrections to classical mechanics. The entire system including the apparatus and even the mind of the observer can be considered to develop according to the Schrödinger equation. And it is entirely possible that future generations will look back, from the vantage point of a more sophisticated theory, and wonder how we could have been so gullible.” --David Griffiths, Introduction to Quantum Mechanics, p. 4 When an experimentalist does a measurement on a quantum system, the system interacts with the experimental equipment, which is an external physical system. The introduction of hidden variables to determine the outcome of individual events is fully compatible with the statistical predictions of quantum theory. Only if one can interpret a quantum measurement as an interaction between an instrument and an object, whose state is literally represented by Schrödinger’s wave function, and therefore taken to contain all potential values of observation, does it make sense to claim that the measurement forces the object to manifest one of these potential vales. J. von Neumann,Mathematische Grundlagen der Quantenmechanik (Springer, Berlin, 1932) [English translation: Mathematical Foundations of Quantum Mechanics (Princeton University Press, Princeton, N. J., 1955)]. Quantum mechanics arose in the 1920s, and since then scientists have disagreed on how best to interpret it. Phys. Mod. stream Pages 91-130. The Measurement Process in the Individual Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics D. Bohm,Quantum Theory (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1951). 205, 199 (1967). physics is essentially indeterministic; that particles may besomewhere without being at any particular place; that they may have energy andmomentum without having any particular value for them; and a host morenon-classical ��Ni��2�dM��ڗ�38�:��4N���t�$Q W. M. Elsasser,The Physical Foundation of Biology (Pergamon Press, New York and London, 1958). The Many-Worlds Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics. x�\M�����@�DWE4f�9&�c�;��*��\�6 �@R�r�o������AC�\%��z��u�D?Do�,��"J��h��g&��2�L�2�o�]�U�/cʲ�q�t%~E�]�"ʬÿ�V��o̒���1Z|�?�ձٷ���h�K���� ⥉�"Z�y(�J" �� �+L�_"���`��yhև�i��IH�\���c�W��f�Lz�Q�}�C��.L�.%���Kջ��ؔ2Ba��Q If you have had a deeper look into the theory of Quantum Computation, chances are that you might have come across this term called measurement.On a top level, measurement is essentially what the figure above depicts: some operation on a qubit (some sort of superposition state of basis vectors|0> and |1>) to get a classical bit (the process of which is … Notable results from this period include Planck's calculation of the blackbody radiation spectrum, Einstein's explanation of the photoelectric effect, Einstein and Debye's work on the specific heat of solids, Bohr and van Leeuwen's proof that classical physics cannot account for diamagnetism, Bohr's model of the hydrogen atom and Arnold Sommerfeld's extension of the Bohr model to include relativistic effects. Pages 131-137. 122, 345 (1961). The entire system including the apparatus and even the mind of the observer can be considered to develop according to the Schrodinger equation. A major motivation for this view is the promise to provide a reasonable account of state update under measurement by asserting that it is simply a natural feature of updating incomplete statistical information. 58, 678 (1964); C. L. Mehta and E. C. G. Sudarshan,Phys. The inability to observe such a collapse directly has given rise to different interpretations of quantum mechanics and poses a key set of questions that each interpretation must answer. Full Record; Other Related Research; Authors: Cooper, L N; Van Vechten, D Publication Date: Wed Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 1969 Research Org. 88, 101 (1952); E. P. Wigner and M. M. Yanase,Proc. Von Neumann’s (1927, 1932) measurement theory is. Phys. Introduction. This question crops up frequently in conjunction with the “Copenhagen interpretation”. On the Interpretation of Measurement within the Quantum Theory was published in The Many Worlds Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics on page 219. The Quantum Theory of Measurement 539 Other topics covered in this chapter include information theoretical aspects of measurements, measurement dynamics, limitations on measurability, ideal and non-ideal measurement, repeatable measurement and continuous observables, and preparation and determination of states. ONTHE INTERPRETATION OF MEASUREMENT WITHIN THE QUANTUM THEORY by Leon N. Cooper and Deborah van Vechten 219 THE MEASUREMENT OFRELATIVE FREQUENCY byNeill Graham 229 . �"��u��c��!�J\8y�dP|nr9a4.�~�����������2.���pM��%����G'(�*��8�Ŋ��d�x2�بL|=a)�X*b��$��/@�&��9G-k�^C$�XA���zkp Y��-�7Q��R� �\ᖅ���nPV��)f`�d�JcM�,틆�g7�xqrYjQf\�`�QuO'J��n�"��XKl��i�T�I�^�~m/��sܫ x �r��jh�5L�9�v�Ժ�z��7b�jX�������.�E�t������Ŵ���=.��Tt�C� u��a�5���42���I_ In this section, we shall review quantum language (i.e., the linguistic Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics, or measurement theory), which has the following form: Quantumlanguage (= measurementtheory) = measurement (Axiom 1) + causality (Axiom 2) + linguistic(Copenhagen)interpretation (how to use Axioms 1 and 2) (1) © 2021 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. Article from link.springer.com. - 91.228.154.182. This variety appears clearly in measurement theory, which is a necessary part of any consistent description of physical phenomena on the quantum level. Despite its status as a core part of contemporary physics, there is noconsensus among physicists or philosophers of physics on the questionof what, if anything, the empirical success of quantum theory istelling us about the physical world. In the double slit experiments, the wavefunction splits between the two […] Mod. The usual interpretation of quantum theory is clouded by the following points. 31, 6 (1963); B. d'Espagnat,Nuovo Cimento (Suppl. The fact that quantum probabilities can be expressed ``as the squares of quantum amplitudes'' is thus derived in a natural manner, and a series of natural generalizations of the quantum formalism is delineated. Theoret. Phys. 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main, Germany The Copenhagen interpretation of quantum theory is investigated from a philosophical point of view. A. Einstein, N. Rosen, and B. Podolski,Phys. February 1995; Synthese 102(2):293-318; DOI: 10.1007/BF01089804. R. J. Glauber,Phys. As stated already, a very natural question which all scientists whoare concerned about the meaning and the value of science have to face,is whether one can develop a coherent worldview that can accommodateour knowledge concerning natural phenomena as it is embodied in ourbest theories. Because the GRW theory makes different predictions from orthodox quantum mechanics in some conditions, it is not an interpretation of quantum mechanics in a strict sense. We find that in principle, these "hidden" variables determine the precise results of each individual measurement process. 54B, 332 (1968); J. M. Jauch, E. P. Wigner, and M. M. Yanase,Nuovo Cimento In Section 2, we lay out the axioms that define the minimal modal interpretation. Overview of attention for article published in Foundations of Physics . In this book the authors give within the Hilbert space formulation of quantum mechanics a systematic exposition of the quantum theory of measurement. 29, 269 (1957); Y. Nambu and G. 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