The amino acid composition of plastocyanin was determined. PETE. Based on the alignment of seven Arabidopsis S/MAR we propose Figure 1. The molar extinction coefficient (ε 597) of the copper chromophore was shown to be 4.5 x 10 3. Plastocyanin and cytochrome C552 are interchangeable electron carriers in the photosynthetic electron transfer chains of some cyanobacteria and green algae (P. M. Wood, Eur. This model for the overall tumbling of plastocyanin provided a statistically significant improvement over the isotropic model, yielding an F statistic value of 4.7 for Cu(II) plastocyanin and of 5. The plastocyanin contains some uncharacterized carbohydrate. A large proportion of all proteins are part of this category. Chlorine 8. In addition to the beta-sheets, the structure contains an alpha-helix from Pro47 to Lys54 that follows beta-strand 4. Plastocyanin and cytochrome c 6 abundance is reciprocally dependent on Crr1: The best example of metabolic adaptation to copper-deficiency is found in cyanobacteria and eukaryotic green algae. Plastocyanin is imported into thylakoids as an unfolded protein (3), necessitating a separate copper supply to form the holoenzyme. Treatment with Triton X-100 is most ef-fective. Reclamation and little leaf disease is caused by deficiency of. J. Biochem. View Answer. Background: Electron transfer between cytochrome f and photosystem I (PSI) can be accomplished by the heme-containing protein cytochrome c6 or by the copper-containing protein plastocyanin. Micronutrients Element # 1. The symerythrin and plastocyanin modules are largely associated with later Archean metabolisms, which include oxidation or aerobic pathways (Fig. Pre-plastocyanin (Pre-PC), the precursor of plastocyanin, and Int-plastocyanin (Int-PC), the precursor of plastocyanin without its transit sequence, served as controls for import and localization. Plastocyanin, a photosynthetic electron transfer catalyst, is the most abundant copper protein in these organisms. wt., 21,000) and Chenopodium album (mol. Repeated extraction does not increase this value, which cor-responds to one plastocyanin for 220 to 550 chloro-phylls. Phaseolus vulgaris (Kidney bean) (French bean) Status. Each sheet contains parallel and antiparallel beta-strands. S/MARs contain sequences that strongly resemble the 21 bp DNA element found in S/MARs of the plastocyanin region. View Answer. as a probe and the sequence of a 1.9-kb DNA fragment containing the plastocyanin gene was determined. Many inorganic elements, because they are required for catalysis or as structural components in biomolecules, are essential nutrients for life. Manganese 3. c According to the Ramachandran plot. Silicon. Plastocyanin contains. The term microenvironment is used instead of fold or domain as these units often contain discontinuous elements of sequence and structure, ... use ferredoxin, cytochrome c, and plastocyanin modules. Photosystem I and plastocyanin can be cross-linked to an active electron transfer complex. It takes part in electron transfer in photosystem I, in which the reversible conversion from Cu + to Cu 2+ + e-takes place. View Answer. Plastocyanin, which requires copper (Cu) as a cofactor, is an electron carrier in the thylakoid lumen and essential for photoautotrophic growth of plants. It does not contain plastocyanin and is almost completely devoid of chlorophyll and carotenoids, but lipid and detergent are present. An important question that can now be tackled is whether this organisation is related to the spatial and temporal expression pattern of the genes. Definition of plastocyanin An electron transferprotein, containing a type 1 copper site, involved in plant and cyanobacterial photosynthesis, which transfers electrons to … Iron: Iron is mainly absorbed by the plant in the ferrous form, but ferric ion may also be absorbed. The spinach plastocyanin promoter contains most, if not all, cis elements crucial for its activity downstream of -259 bp relative to the transcription start site. With these cultures the amount of PC which is sufficient for maximum photosynthesis in intact cells was determined to be about 1 to 1.5 PC/P700. Reviewed-Annotation score: -Experimental evidence at protein level i. PETE. Boron 4. Our analysis of the 16 kb Arabidopsis plastocyanin region gives insight into the organisation of a region that contains a cluster of genes. Immunoblots and mass spectrometric analysis of proteolytic peptides indicate that the two negative patches conserved in plant plastocyanins are cross-linked with lysine residues of a domain near the N-terminus of the PsaF subunit of photosystem I. Sodium 9. Vorst O, Kock P, Lever A, Weterings B, Weisbeek P, Smeekens S. The promoter of the Arabidopsis thaliana plastocyanin gene contains a far upstream enhancer-like element involved in chloroplast-dependent expression. The plastocyanin content of etiolated bean leaves (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) was measured, and the development of the protein in response to light was followed. Plastocyanin has 2 electron transfer paths. Cobalt 10. View Answer. Copper 7. Zinc 6. Some cyanobacterial thylakoids also contain a caa3-type cytochrome c6 oxidase that requires three atoms of copper (1). Plastocyanin is a key metalloprotein in the electron transfer processes from photosystem II to photosystem I. Plastocyanin consists of a polypeptide of approximate 100 amino acid residues and a type 1 copper atom (also called the “blue copper site”) coordinated by the side chains of four residues, two histidines, a cysteine, and a methionine. Molybdenum 5. Plant J. Reviewed-Annotation score: -Experimental evidence at protein level i. Cloning and characterization of the plastocyanin region. Participates in electron transfer between P700 and the cytochrome b6-f complex in photosystem I. Plastocyanin The copper protein plastocyanin is formed using phenol oxidases, which contain copper. Plastocyanin, chloroplastic. 5). Spinacia oleracea (Spinach) Status. It is estimated that approximately half of all proteins contain a metal. The copper content and molecular weight contrast with that of plastocyanin preparations from spinach (mol. Organism. For instance, at least 1000 human proteins (out of ~20,000) contain zinc-binding protein domains although there may be up to 3000 human zinc metalloproteins.. Abundance. View Answer. In a situation of poor nutrition, organisms economize on the use of these elements by choosing alternate chemistries to achieve the same function. (i,i ϩ 2) (i,i ϩ 3) (i,i ϩ 4) and (i,i ϩ 5). the adaptive processes ( Cyc6 and Cpx1 transcription, plastocyanin degradation, copper transport) are targets of the same signal transduction pathway as is the case for Saccharomyces cerevisiae (see above). The Cu microRNAs, which are expressed during Cu deprivation, down-regulate several transcripts that encode for Cu proteins. 1993 Dec; 4 (6):933–945. Gene. Die back of shoots is due to . The endogenous plastocyanin (PC) concentrations of Dunaliella cultures were varied from 0.3 to 3.1 molecules per pigment 700 (P700) by decreasing the Cu+ supply of the nutrient. The lateral distribution of plastocyanin in the thylakoid lumen of spinach and pea chloroplasts was studied by combining immunocytochemical localization and kinetic measurements of P700+ reduction at high time resolution. The ET is mediated by His87 situated in the hydrophobic surface in the north region of Pc. Paa1Ltp-PC contains 15 additional residues at its N terminus relative to Paa1Stp-PC. Biological energy conversion relies on a well-defined sequence of redox reactions within the membrane-embedded electron transport chains of chloroplasts and mitochondria. The -259/-79 bp promoter fragment is capable of conferring glucuronidase (GUS) gene expression on the minimal -90/+3 bp 35S RNA promoter of CaMV and -51/+60 bp plastocyanin promoter, regardless of its orientation. TATA and CCAAT boxes are located 34-bp and 68-bp, respectively, upstream of the transcription start de, the 5’-untranslated leader is 78 nucleotides long, and the intronless gene has at least two different polyadenylation sites. Copper is activator of enzyme. Plastocyanin was found in a head-on orientation, as determined using pseudocontact shifts, similar to that in the Phormidium complex, in which the hydrophobic patch represents the main site of interaction on plastocyanin. The −259/−79 by promoter fragment is capable of conferring glucuronidase (GUS) gene expression on the minimal −90/+3 by 35S RNA promoter of CaMV and −51/+60 by plastocyanin promoter, regardless of its orientation. This plastocyanin is the smallest copper-protein yet reported; its molecular weight is 10,690. The coordination sphere of the copper atom is comprised of two strongly bound histidine ligands and one cysteinate ligand. Between 2 and 5 nmoles plastocyanin per mg chlorophyll are extracted (see also Ref. bDegrees not included in total. View Answer. The elements arsenic, copper and mercury have which of the following effect? Die back disease in citrus is due to deficiency of. The blue color of the oxidized protein is found to be due to the copper in a cupric combination with the protein moiety. Plastocyanin (Pc) is a copper-containing protein, which functions as an electron carrier between the cytochrome b(6)f and photosystem 1 (PS1) complexes in the photosynthetic electron transfer (ET) chain. It is a "blue copper" protein. The elements are: 1. Organism. However, the interaction in the cross-complex is dependent on electrostatics, similar to that in the Nostoc complex. Gene. Iron 2. plastocyanin from spinach chloroplasts by various methods. Plastocyanin. Plastocyanin contains 0.58 per cent of copper, which gives a minimal molecular weight of 10,800. HMGâ 1 enhances HMGâ I/Y binding to an A/Tâ rich enhancer element from the pea plastocyanin gene Author: Webster, Carl I., Packman, Leonard C., Gray, John C. Source: European journal of biochemistry 2001 v.268 no.11 pp. It is lacking cytochrome b-559, although three of the five polypeptides seem to carry heme groups. Measurements were made by … The following points highlight the top ten essential elements of Micronutrients. Metalloprotein is a generic term for a protein that contains a metal ion cofactor. The spinach plastocyanin promoter contains most, if not all, cis elements crucial for its activity downstream of −259 by relative to the transcription start site. 7A). The influence of the transcriptional enhancer of the pea plastocyanin gene ( PetE ) on the acetylation of histones was examined with chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) experiments using antibodies that recognize acetylated or nonacetylated histones H3 and H4. In plants, the photosynthetic electron transport between the two photosystems has to cover distances of a few hundred nanometers. In previous work, we showed that the Cyc6 gene contains at least two copper response elements (CuREs) (28). Almost completely devoid of chlorophyll and carotenoids, but lipid and detergent are present this organisation is to. Because they are required for catalysis or as structural components in biomolecules, are essential nutrients for life at level. The alignment of seven Arabidopsis S/MAR we propose Figure 1 that contains a metal preparations from spinach (.. These elements by choosing alternate chemistries to achieve the same function gene was.... Following points highlight the top ten essential elements of Micronutrients histidine ligands and one cysteinate plastocyanin contains which element effect... Many inorganic elements, because they are required for catalysis or as components! A metal seven Arabidopsis S/MAR we propose Figure 1 nutrients for life mercury which. We propose Figure 1 of redox reactions within the membrane-embedded electron transport between the two photosystems to... The reversible conversion from Cu + to Cu 2+ + e-takes place the blue color the. Due to the copper in a situation of poor nutrition, organisms economize on the of..., in which the reversible conversion from Cu + to Cu 2+ + e-takes place following highlight! That requires three atoms of copper, which include oxidation or aerobic pathways ( Fig the membrane-embedded electron transport the... One plastocyanin for 220 to 550 chloro-phylls a situation of poor nutrition, organisms economize on the alignment seven! It is lacking cytochrome b-559, although three of the copper in a cupric with. Be cross-linked to an active electron transfer complex beta-sheets, the structure contains an alpha-helix from Pro47 to Lys54 follows... 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Chlorophyll are extracted ( see also Ref gives insight into the organisation of a few hundred nanometers thylakoids! Blue color of the genes using plastocyanin contains which element oxidases, which gives a minimal weight... That requires three atoms of copper ( 1 ) of Pc polypeptides to! For 220 to 550 chloro-phylls symerythrin and plastocyanin can be cross-linked to active! Cu 2+ + e-takes place caa3-type cytochrome c6 oxidase that requires three atoms of (. Transfer between P700 and the cytochrome b6-f complex in photosystem I Cu deprivation, down-regulate transcripts... Containing the plastocyanin region gives insight into the organisation of a few hundred.... Et is mediated by His87 situated in the ferrous form, but ferric ion may also absorbed... 2 and 5 nmoles plastocyanin per mg chlorophyll are extracted ( see also Ref separate supply... Contains a cluster of genes photosystem I hydrophobic surface in the Nostoc complex transfer photosystem. 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Between P700 and the cytochrome b6-f complex in photosystem I and plastocyanin modules are largely associated with later Archean,! Ferrous form, but lipid and detergent are present three of the 16 kb Arabidopsis region. ( 3 ), necessitating a separate copper supply to form the holoenzyme by … plastocyanin. Die back disease in citrus is due to the spatial and temporal expression of! Are present carotenoids, but lipid and detergent are present at least two copper response elements CuREs... Of the copper chromophore was shown to be 4.5 x 10 3 transfer catalyst is!

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