Performance standards can be advantageous because they accommodate the consideration of many variables (such as the species and previous history of the animals, facilities, staff. The Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources (ILAR) was founded in 1952 under the auspices of the National Research Council. Partial/ Relative Replacement: Animals are still used to provide tissue, cells and/or organs but experiments are conducted in … var current_q = document.getElementById('google-search-policy-q').value; In addition, faculty investigators are responsible for completing periodic training to remain current on federal, state, and local regulations, University policies and procedures, and animal care and use technology. NASA Principles for the Ethical Care and Use of Animals. The Committee and its chair are appointed by the Vice Chancellor for Research and Economic Development for 3-year staggered terms, and must have at least five (5) members including a veterinarian, a scientist, a non-scientist and a community representative not otherwise affiliated with the University. Engineering standards are prescriptive and provide limited flexibility for implementation. NASA [National Aeronautics and Space Administration]. Moreover, without the use of animals, adequate instruction of students in the life sciences would be impossible. They are generally practical statements of collective wisdom, convention, or management direction that are internal to the entity. The Guide is central to these analyses and to the development of a program in which humane care is incorporated into all aspects of laboratory animal care and use. May indicates a suggestion to be considered. View our suggested citation for this chapter. 2005. Ready to take your reading offline? Public Health Service Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals I. Available at http://oacu.od.nih.gov/regs/USGovtPrncpl.htm; accessed May 10, 2010. Individual sections will be particularly relevant to certain users, and it is expected that the reader will explore in more detail the references provided (including those in Appendix A) on topics of interest. 2008. Switch between the Original Pages, where you can read the report as it appeared in print, and Text Pages for the web version, where you can highlight and search the text. Finally, members of the public should feel assured that adherence to the Guide will ensure humane care and use of laboratory animals. [4] Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals If you are an IACUC member or administrator you should complete the “Essentials for IACUC members” course. Reduction involves strategies for obtaining comparable levels of information from the use of fewer animals or for maximizing the information obtained from a given number of animals (without increasing pain or distress) so that in the long run fewer animals are needed to acquire the same scientific information. 50, no. This updated and expanded resource of proven value will be important to scientists and researchers, veterinarians, animal care personnel, facilities managers, institutional administrators, policy makers involved in research issues, and animal welfare advocates. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website. Bethesda: Office of Extramural Research, NIH. In making such determinations, it is. Throughout the Guide, scientists and institutions are encouraged to give careful and deliberate thought to the decision to use animals, taking into consideration the contribution that such use will make to new knowledge, ethical concerns, and the availability of alternatives to animal use (NRC 1992). Laboratory animals or animals: Any vertebrate animal (e.g., traditional laboratory animals, agricultural animals, wildlife, and aquatic species) produced for or used in research, testing, or teaching. 1985. It is organized around major components of animal use: The Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals provides a framework for the judgments required in the management of animal facilities. Vertebrate animals will be used for research and teaching only when no other appropriate means are available, and when every effort has been made to minimize animal pain and discomfort. Available at http://grants.nih.gov/grants/olaw/references/phspol.htm; accessed June 9, 2010. Rodent Handling and Restraint Techniques. The IACUC has a key oversight role, including the review and approval of animal use activities, and inspection of animal facilities. However, policies may assume broader force when they become the means by which an implementing agency interprets existing statutes (e.g., PHS Policy). expertise, and research goals) so that implementation can be best tailored to meet the recommendations in the Guide. The number of animals used for a research project will be the minimum number necessary to produce scientifically valid results, and, where possible, animal research will be replaced by alternative methods. document.forms["google-search-policy"].submit(); Not a MyNAP member yet? ILAR J 40:1-37. The Guide endorses the responsibilities of investigators as stated in the U.S. Government Principles for Utilization and Care of Vertebrate Animals Used in Testing, Research, and Training (IRAC 1985; see Appendix B). The Three Rs represent a practical method for implementation of the principles described above. Additionally, OESO works with Employee Occupational Health and Wellness to prevent Laboratory Animal Allergy among employees. The housing, care, feeding and observation of all animals must be supervised by individuals trained in such matters. The use of laboratory animals in research, teaching, testing, and production is also governed or affected by various federal and local laws, regulations, and standards; for example, in the United States the Animal Welfare Act (AWA 1990) and Regulations (PL 89-544; USDA 1985) and/or Public Health Service (PHS) Policy (PHS 2002) may apply. Refinement and reduction goals should be balanced on a case-by-case basis. Washington: National Academy Press. The performance approach requires professional input, sound judgment, and a team approach to achieve specific goals. Ideally, engineering and performance standards are balanced, setting a target for optimal practices, management, and operations while encouraging flexibility and judgment, if appropriate, based on individual situations (Gonder et al. The Ethics of Research Using Animals. Janet C. Garber, Chair. The Committee for the Update of the Guide believes that the terms set out below are important for a full understanding of the Guide. A component of the Commission on Life Sciences, ILAR develops guidelines and disseminates information on the scientific, technological, and ethical use of animals and related biological resources in research, testing, and education. London: Methuen and Co. [Reissued: 1992, Universities Federation for Animal Welfare, Herts, UK]. The Guide can assist IACUCs and administrators in protocol review, assessment, and oversight of an animal care and use program. The IACUC, appointed by the Institutional Official, is recognized as the principal point of communication about laboratory animal and use issues for the University. } Principal investigators are strongly discouraged from advocating animal reuse as a reduction strategy, and reduction should not be a rationale for reusing an animal or animals that have already undergone experimental procedures especially if the well-being of the animals would be compromised. U.S. Government Principles for Utilization and Care of Vertebrate Animals Used in Testing, Research, and Training. The basis of compliance is determined by the Animal Welfare Act (U.S.C., Title 7, Sections 2131-2156), the PHS Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, accrediting agency guidelines, and accepted standards of best practice. 1990. • Animals are susceptible to many of the same health problems as humans – cancer, diabetes, heart disease, etc. Examples may include the use of human volunteers, training manikins, tissues and cells, mathematical and computer models, and established cell lines. The Guide is meant to be read by the user in its entirety, as there are many concepts throughout that may be helpful. This edition of the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (the Guide) strongly affirms the principle that all who care for, use, or produce animals for research, testing, or teaching must assume responsibility for their well-being. References provide the reader with additional resources, and supplemental information on breeding, care, management, and use of selected laboratory animal species is available in other publications prepared by the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research (ILAR) and other organizations (Appendix A). Scientists, veterinarians, technicians, and others have extensive experience and information covering many of the topics discussed in the Guide. © 2021 National Academy of Sciences. Educators and trainers can use the Guide as a document to assess both the scope and adequacy of training programs supported by the institution. 2001). Accordingly, we have defined these terms and concepts to provide users of the Guide with additional assistance in implementing their responsibilities. Animal use is defined as the proper care, use, and humane treatment of laboratory animals produced for or used in research, testing, or teaching. ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one. involving animal care resulting from complaints by University personnel or the public. Members of the scientific community (investigators and other animal users) will find Chapters 1 and 2 (and portions of Chapter 4) of the Guide useful for their interactions with the IACUC, attending veterinarian, and administrators regarding animal care as well as the preparation of animal care and use protocols. The Guide does not address in detail agricultural animals used in production, agricultural research or teaching, wildlife and aquatic species studied in natural settings, or invertebrate animals (e.g., cephalopods) used in research, but establishes general principles and ethical considerations that are also applicable to these species and situations. Animal use shall be planned and conducted so as to avoid or minimize pain and distress to the animals. A laboratory animal facility (vivarium) is an extension of the research laboratory, and all requirements for work with biohazardous agents and toxic chemicals in the research laboratory are applicable to work in the animal facility. This approach requires that users, IACUCs, veterinarians, and producers apply professional judgment in making specific decisions regarding animal care and use. It includes the establishment and support of an IACUC or equivalent ethical oversight committee and the maintenance of an environment in which the IACUC can function successfully to carry out its responsibilities under the Guide and applicable laws and policies. Perry P. 2007. An institutional animal care and use committee (IACUC) is required by federal regulations for most institutions that use animals in research, teaching, and testing. Bioethics of laboratory animal research. The University is committed to maintaining that accreditation, and each faculty member, staff member, or student involved in the use of animals is responsible for protecting their welfare and for knowing, understanding, and complying with applicable laws. Even if these terms are not consistent with those used by non-US institutions, the underlying principles can still be applied. Lab Animal Welfare Do you conduct or supervise studies that use laboratory animals? Because the Guide is written in general terms, IACUCs have a key role in interpretation, implementation, oversight, and evaluation of institutional animal care and use programs. 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