There are two stages of sheet erosion. Surface residue, for example, plays an important role in terms of predicting the amount of soil lost during a given rainfall event. This criterion is considered as ‘more is better.’. The main aim was to employ the current knowledge to develop a model as an alternative to USLE. Specifically the model considers three erosion processes: detachment, transportation and deposition. This criterion is considered as ‘more is better.’, By each alternative, the needs of WR have been considered. In arid zones, rainfall erosion plays an important role in landscape sculpture. For example, hills and ridges formed by erosion tend to have smoothly rounded ridges that are distinct from the sharper profiles created by other forms of water erosion. Under the pressures of overgrazing, deforestation, and irrational reclamation for agriculture production purpose, vegetation was degraded and destroyed in desertification-prone land areas, steppes were overgrazed and degraded in large quantity, soil was salinized and deteriorated, and soil/water conservative capacity was reduced and lost in many affected developing countries due to floods, drought, and other natural disasters. The model calculates both detachment and deposition. If allowed to continue, loss of vegetation, habitat and land will occur. We all know that the erosion that is experienced by this land can occur due to various factors. Lighter materials - such as fine sand, silt, clay, and organic material - that emanate from raindrops are washed away more easily by current, leaving behind large grains of sand, pebbles, and gravel. If the erosion on … J.F. Rainfall – Rainfall can cause erosion when the rain hits the surface of the Earth. The output of the continuous simulation model represents the time-integrated estimate of erosion. Wind erosion creates problems far from the initiation point with dust storms reducing air quality in urban areas and in adjoining countries in some cases. The first is rain splash, in which soil particles are knocked into the air by raindrop impact. They separate the particles from the soil and destroy their structure. Now imagine when heavy rain falls, millions of rain drops fall on the soil for many days, causing considerable soil erosion. The sediment that is loaded is routed to the catchment outlet by simulating the process of erosion and transportation. Rainfall produces four types of soil erosion: splash erosion, sheet erosion, rill erosion, and gully erosion. Retrieved from: Wind and water erosion are not the only means by which soil can be moved beyond the boundaries of a field. The WEPP watershed model is made up of four major components: hillslope, channel, impoundment, and irrigation. The CO 2 combines with water to form carbonic acid. The figures included in this criterion have been obtained from the results of different forums and meetings with institutions, organizations, and native people (Grau, 2003). Prediction of the effects of land use and management practices on erosion control are perhaps the most important part of an erosion prediction tool if the purpose is to plan land and farm management systems to control erosion. Although generally convincing, test sequence number three (FOU 3) shows that other factors are able to reduce erosion almost entirely. Wind and water erosion are the main soil deterioration processes in different zones. If the area is flat, puddles begin to form. In case there is a reservoir within the catchment, the same can also be considered. Retrieved from: (2017) England. In rivers and estuaries, the erosion of banks is caused by the scouring action of the moving water, particularly in times of flood and, in the case of estuaries, also by the tidal flow on the ebb tide when river and tidewater combine in their erosive action. A hundred tons of particles per acre may be dislodged during a single rainstorm. There are many different forces in nature that cause erosion. Water Erosion. Rainwater is collected from a roof-like surface and redirected to a tank, cistern, deep pit (well, shaft, or borehole), aquifer, or a reservoir with percolation.Dew and fog can also be collected with nets or other tools. How to Prevent Water Erosion. Interrill erosion is conceptualized as a process of sediment delivery to rills, whereby the interrill sediment is either carried off the hillslope by the flow in the rill or deposited in the rill. Water droplets in their downward path impact the ground and pluck particles, generating a tiny form of laminar erosion. The model carries out a simulation of the physical processes that cover erosion. Fig. Get premium, high resolution news photos at Getty Images Wind erosion is a serious problem in many parts of the world, especially in arid and semiarid regions. The erosion done by water is called ablation. Sediments deposited along the road due to soil erosion by water in the surrounding vineyards in Moixent, Valecia province (Spain). When the water accumulates on the surface and increases the speed with which it drains, a network of small channels is formed. The high variability of results caused by the soil conditions presents a strong contrast to the controlled rainfall applied to the plots. "Rain Erosion Damages"(2017) Poly Tech A / S Recovered from: It affects agricultural land in much of Northern Africa and the Near East; parts of Southern, Central, and Eastern Asia; Australia; Northwest China; Southern South America; and North America. You will learn how different rocks are weathered and eroded and the implications of this weathering. Methods to control or reduce wind erosion are covered in Chapter 20. The soil profiles in most of Iowa are now filled to capacity with water. The authors have considered that it would be satisfactory to give employment to the majority of the population. Rainwater and sea water can act as weak acids. Sheet and rill erosion. They can also cause erosion when raindrops gather together and flow like small streams. Farmers can control soil loss through residue management and tillage practices. Specialized erosion control practices have been developed for use within stream channels, forest areas, and construction sites. Smaller particles remain suspended in air for longer periods of time and are therefore more likely to travel much longer distances. It is when the soil is broken down into smaller pieces and they become loose in the earth’s surface. Laminar erosion consists of the entrainment of soil particles by rainwater in the direction of the slope. Rainfall, and the surface runoff which may result from rainfall, produces four main types of soil erosion: splash erosion, sheet erosion, rill erosion, and gully erosion. Since this is a tedious task, expert systems have been developed for the assistance of a user. Plus rain water makes temporary river streams that cause erosion too. It is able to account for spatial and temporal variations in topography, surface roughness, soil properties, crops, and landuse on hillslopes. About 95% of soil is splashed by falling rain drops and runoff water erodes less than 5% of the soil. This criterion is considered as ‘more is better.’, The relative economical benefits using each alternative in a period of 25 years have been obtained. This is called splash erosion. "The erosion of the terrestrial surface"(2017) Educational Astronomy. Rainwater harvesting is the practice of collecting and storing rain for reuse, rather than letting the water run off and be absorbed into the ground or channeled into drains, streams, or rivers. Rainfall causes erosion of exposed areas in two ways; rain splash and transportation. Field equipment can track soil into or out of a field, but this does not likely represent a significant loss or gain of soil. Rainfall characteristics, soil factors, topography, climate, and land use are important elements affecting soil erosion. Both are effectively stopped by an erosion mat. The Rain erosion Is the manifestation of the action of rain on the earth's surface. Lobb, in Encyclopedia of Ecology, 2008. One of the most effective means of reducing erosion is to maintain a vegetative or residue cover on the soil surface. Depending on the type of force, erosion can occur rapidly or require thousands of years. The model simulates erosion for some number of years and sums the total soil loss over those years for each point on the hillslope to obtain the average annual values of erosion along the hillslope. A brief description of the model is given here. In addition to the cost of this impact, eutrophication of watercourses and lakes, destruction of wildlife, sedimentation of dams, reservoirs, rivers and flood damage are all significant, as are the losses Agricultural activities. Soil water erosion on cultivated lands represents a severe threat to soil resources in the world, and especially in Mediterranean areas, due to their topographic, edaphic, and climatic conditions (Prosdocimi et al., 2016). An erosion model may use a plant growth and residue decay model to estimate the amount of crop residue present on the soil surface for each day through the year. The pictures taken in Sampford Peverell, Devon, show severe soil erosion on a steep field that was said to have contained too few crops prior to the heavy winter rain. Therefore, the heavier the precipitation, the larger the drops. Types of Soil Erosion Caused by Water: Soil erosion caused by water may be of the following kinds: (i) Splash erosion: ADVERTISEMENTS: The raindrops which fall at an approximate speed of 75 cms per second on ground strike it with a force of about 14 times its own weight. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. For some locations, diverting this water is necessary to prevent soil erosion and to prevent chemicals and … WEPP model may also be executed in a single-storm mode, although it is very effective when used as a continuous simulation model. First, when the splash of rain, with its impact, hits the soil particles. Indeed erosion rates from agriculture are among the highest rates found for land uses (García-Ruiz and Lana-Renault, 2011). (2006) Aquatic Ecology (Dec. 2006), Volume 40. Retrieved from: Springer Link Water erosion may occur within rills, interrill areas (the regions between rills), gullies, ephemeral gullies, stream channels, forest areas, and construction sites. Secondly, these particles, when detached, move downhill with the layers of water that flow by dragging sediments. Rill Erosion is the third stage of soil erosion. It should be noted that finer textured soils (those with more silt and clay sized particles) are often less erodible than sandy soils. When this occurs, the groundwater drains and the water table falls. The criteria were rated on a 1–10 scale, according to local evaluations and other methods of elicitation. These channels are also being polished by the entrainment of the particles, gradually increasing the size of the streams, which may cause large amounts of sediment to be dumped into streams and nearby rivers. Instead, it runs over the land. C. Longjun, in Encyclopedia of Environmental Health (Second Edition), 2019. They are indicative of high spatial variability of soil and surface properties between the test plots (Fister et al., 2013). An impoundment element can receive input from hillslope or channel elements. This reflects the ability of fine particles to form soil large aggregates that hold the soil in place during high wind events. The amount of soil loss is related to the soil texture and moisture content as well as the method of harvesting. Water causes erosion through rainfall, rivers, ocean waves, or large floods. Erosion has helped to form many notorious characteristics of the surface of the Earth, including mountain peaks, valleys and coasts. Rain erosion is one of the different types of water erosion, among which are also listed: laminar erosion, furrow erosion, erosion in gullies and erosion in terracotta. García-Ruiz et al. Therefore, the water table when it falls, can modify the conditions and reduce the coverage of soil in a river basin, further increasing erosion. In five out of six cases, erosion during the third run, which includes the influence of wind on raindrops, was significantly increased compared to the second rainfall without wind. Inter-rill erosion describes the movement of topsoil by rainfall and its resultant surface flow. The Erosion of Reinforced Concrete Walls by the Flow of Rainwater Kawthar Hadja, and Fattoum Kharchi* (Received February 26, 2016, Accepted October 24, 2016, Published online February 28, 2017) Abstract: The action of rainwater on reinforced concrete walls has led to an erosion phenomenon. (2015) presented an analysis of published data on soil erosion rates (in units of mass per area and time), considering about 4000 sites worldwide. Núñez Solís, J. The relative results have been taken into the IM for this criterion. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, Agroforestry: Conservation Trees and Erosion Prevention, Encyclopedia of Agriculture and Food Systems, Mathematical Models to Elaborate Plans for Adaptation of Rural Communities to Climate Change, Environmental and Pollution Science (Third Edition), Encyclopedia of Environmental Health (Second Edition), Water Resources Systems Planning and Management, Use of Field Experiments in Soil Erosion Research, Nikolaus J. Kuhn, ... Wolfgang Fister, in, Soil Movement by Tillage and Other Agricultural Activities. Like water erosion, wind erosion has two phases: detachment and movement. Therefore soil wind erosion and soil texture are not always directly related. In this way, a single storm can remove one millimeter of dirt, which may seem insignificant, but translates to more than five tons per acre. Using Barriers to Control Erosion Know that barriers are best left to professionals. This water that travels across the land is called runoff. The berm will keep the water in the rain garden, so has to be well-compacted, around 30cm (1ft) wide and 10cm (6in) in height Leave a notch in the berm, with a gravel-filled channel for the water to exit into a conventional drainage system If the area is sloping, the top … Weathering can be summarized as the slow and systematic breakdown of stone, soil, and vegetation like wood as a result of contact with elements in the atmosphere such as rain, heat, cold, and wind. The watershed version is a catchment model which includes the slope model and estimates the sediment delivery to channels. Larger soil particles can move relatively short distances in this way, but, more importantly, as the large particles bounce and strike smaller particles and aggregates, they provide the energy necessary to break aggregates apart and suspend smaller particles in the air. As the water travels it takes the soil particles with it. Water erosion is the removal of soil by water and transportation of the eroded materials away from the point of removal. For the case of deposition. "What is rain splash erosion and why is it important?"Exploration. Fig. In general, erosion is the erosion of the earth by forces such as water, wind and ice. Water erosion is caused by the detachment and transport of soil by rainfall, runoff, melting snow or ice, and irrigation. Firstly the mats have high surface cover to prevent the rain drops from pounding into the soil. Such an erosion, where a bit of soil is scraped away, due to each falling raindrop, is called Splash erosion. As it increases, erosion by gullies, can also cut below the groundwater level. They have been considered in each subzone. Interrill sediment delivery, and Di, is considered to be independent of x. Rill erosion, Df, is positive for detachment and negative for deposition. This means that large droplets carry hundreds of times more energy than droplets. 5.1.4. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. Sediment yield from wind-driven rainfall experiments in Jutland, Denmark (FOU, abbreviation for the test site near Foulum; 11, year of experiment; R1-R2-WR, one set of consecutive test runs on one plot; R1, first rainfall on dry soil; R2, second rainfall on wet soil; WR, wind-driven rainfall on wet soil. Soil eroded in agricultural landscapes can also be delivered to the drainage network (Borselli et al., 2008), with direct consequences on the rates and magnitudes of floodplain sedimentation (Doolittle, 2006; Knox, 2006). Erosion may also impact water conveyance and storage structures, and contribute to pollution from land surfaces. Arrows showing increasing trend are in accordance to the hypotheses and arrows showing decreasing trend indicate a contrary development. The irrigation component calculates erosion and deposition on border irrigation areas. Fig. Water erosion is very simplistically speaking caused by rainfall, river flow, waves (wave action, hydraulic action and abrasion), corrosion, glacier movement, thawing, etc., while wind erosion is caused by wind picking up loose particles (deflation) that batter the ground as they fly by (abrasion), causing additional particles to become loose and fly away. Globally, 45.2% of the desertification-prone land areas are affected by soil degradation process of water erosion, and 41.8% by soil degradation of wind erosion. Jain, V.P. "Erosion"(April, 2011) in Ecology Today Retrieved from: The relative WE indexes figure in the IM. In the WEPP erosion model, the interrill sediment delivery is adjusted to account for the effects of ground cover, dead roots, live roots, and canopy cover. Like water erosion, wind erosion is significantly influenced by the amount of vegetation cover; therefore, any activity that removes vegetation, such as agriculture, deforestation, or other land degradation processes, can increase wind erosion. Their results highlighted the effect of land use, with agricultural lands yielding the highest erosion rates. READ: Chemical Weathering - Definition, Processes and Types Many deep-rooted plants, which protect the soil from erosion, depend more on groundwater than on surface water. Rain erosion is one of the different types of water erosion, among which are also listed: laminar erosion, furrow erosion, erosion in gullies and erosion in terracotta. where Vf(m/s) is the effective fall velocity for the sediment, and q (m2/s) is the discharge per unit width. Excessive erosion can threaten the production of agricultural and forest products. Rills are the shallow drainage lines that are … The model uses a daily time step and simulates the process of plant growth, soil properties and hydrologic processes. Rill Erosion. This drag can occur diffusely (barely perceptible) or even. Water is an object that is powerful enough to move materials that are in the ground or on the surface of the soil. Studies have shown that raindrops fall at speeds of up to 20 mph and can shed particles of earth up to a distance of one and a half meters horizontally and half a meter vertically. Gilley, in Encyclopedia of Soils in the Environment, 2005. , or into an impoundment element can receive input from hillslope or channel elements in... Of soil loss through residue Management and tillage practices is experienced by this land can occur to! In Fig is splashed by falling rain drops from pounding into the ground erosion rain erosion rain erosion ''... 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