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Modelo de las 5 Fuerzas de Porter - Parte 3 - Think&Start

Modelo de las 5 Fuerzas de Porter – Parte 3

Modelo de las 5 Fuerzas de Porter – Parte 3

Continuando con el Modelo de Michael Porter, ahora que sabemos cómo se lleva a cabo la segunda fuerza: Rivalidad entre las compañías establecidas, sigamos con la tercera fuerza que es: Poder de Negociación de los Compradores.

¿Quiénes son los compradores? Estos pueden ser tanto los individuales que consumen los productos (usuarios finales) o las compañías que se van a encargar de distribuir los productos de una industria a los usuarios finales. Estos son los comercializadores al mayoreo o menudeo.

El poder de negociación de los compradores, se refiere a la capacidad que tienen los compradores de lograr que se disminuyan los precios y/o que aumenten los costos para demandar una mejor calidad en el producto y servicio. Al lograrlo, los compradores pueden sacar ganancias de una industria. Las circunstancias en las que son más poderosos son:

-Cuando la industria tiene muchas compañías pequeñas pero compradores grandes y pocos. Así los compradores dominan a las que abastecen.

Cuando los compradores compran en grandes cantidades, porque pueden negociar una reducción de precios.

-Cuando un porcentaje grande del total de la oferta de la industria depende de los pedidos de los compradores.

-Cuando el costo de cambiar un producto es bajo, ya que obliga a las demás compañías de la industria a bajar sus precios.

-Cuando los compradores pueden comprar un solo producto de varias compañías, para poner a las mismas, una contra la otra.

-Cuando los compradores amenazan con entrar a la industria para fabricar el producto y satisfacer sus propias necesidades. Con esta táctica, obligas a la industria a bajar sus precios.

-Cuando tiene mucha información sobre las condiciones de mercado, los costos del proveedor y ofertas a otros compradores.

Todas estas características también aplican para los consumidores finales. Si analizamos esta tercera fuerza, podrán ver que se pueden diseñar estrategias que sean destinadas a captar un mayor número de clientes u obtener una mayor lealtad de éstos. Un ejemplo de estrategias, es el de aumentar la publicidad, ofreciendo mayores servicios, ofreciendo garantías, descuentos, etc.

Finalmente, si desean mejorar su posición estratégica, deberán encontrar compradores que posean baja capacidad para influenciarlos. Por eso es tan importante tomar esta decisión estratégica de quienes serán sus compradores. No sólo para no dejarse influenciar si no también para convencerlos de que ustedes son la mejor opción.