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La importancia del Project Management - Think&Start

La importancia del Project Management

La importancia del Project Management

Actualmente los proyectos han tomado importante relevancia en las empresas, puesto que es para muchas de ellas la plataforma de desarrollo de sus negocios; por ejemplo, empresas en el área de construcción viven de proyectos.

Se pensaría entonces que el área de proyectos tiene una fuerte administración de los mismos y gran capacidad para el manejo y desarrollo efectivo de los proyectos.

No obstante, he sido parte de la inexperiencia que se tiene al momento de administrar un proyecto, en donde generalmente se van haciendo las diferentes actividades sin tener un objetivo definido y mucho menos fechas y entregables. Al final del día las cosas saldrán, pero quizá a destiempo o con un entregable diferente al propuesto.

Para tener un proyecto exitoso, primeramente se deben identificar tres variables:

1. Requisitos. ¿Qué es lo que se está solicitando? Por lo general hay un abismo entre la comunicación efectiva entre el cliente y el Project manager para definir exactamente cuál es el objetivo final a entregar y todas las características que debe contener el objetivo. Es muy importante ser preciso y exacto al momento de definir los requisitos del proyecto.

2. Expectativas. Por lo general, tendemos a tener expectativas muy grandes y muy al aire sobre lo que queremos, por lo que se debe poner en la mesa de manera fija lo que se espera obtener para evitar decepciones al momento de la entrega del proyecto; en conclusión que no se entregue ni más ni menos de lo esperado y de igual forma que no se reciba ni más ni menos de lo esperado.

3. Restricciones. Es muy importante conocer cuáles son las restricciones del proyecto, ya sea en presupuesto, tiempo o personas; para desde un principio planear como combatir o lidiar con estas restricciones.

Ahora bien, las etapas básicas que un proyecto debe contener son:

1. Iniciación. En esta etapa se define el proyecto, o se determina una nueva fase para un proyecto ya existente y se obtienen las autorizaciones necesarias para el inicio del mismo.

2. Planificación. Se definen los alcances del proyecto, se refinan los objetivos del mismo y se define el curso de acción.

3. Ejecución. En esta etapa se llevan a cabo todas las actividades definidas en el plan de acción.

4. Seguimiento y control. Una vez ejecutado el proyecto, se monitorea y controlan los resultados y se identifican áreas en donde se requieran cambios.

5. Cierre. Se finalizan todas las actividades, se cuenta ya con toda la documentación del proyecto y por lo general se tiene una junta de cierre de proyecto y se suelen evaluar las lecciones aprendidas.

@ceciliaeinstein